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shanila khan
shanila khan
shanila khan
12 months ago
PSYCHOLICAL DISORDER AND ANCIENT TREATMENTS: The field devoted to the scientific study of the problems we find so facinating is usually called psychological disorder. Psychological disorder are a popular subject in todays movies, novels and television shows. The scientific study of abnormal behaviour in an effort to describe , predict, explain and change abnormal pattern of functioning is known as abnormal psychology. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITY: Although many definitions of abnormality have been purposed over the year, none is universally accepted. Still most of the definitions have certain features in common ,often called "the four D'S": Deviance, Distress, Dysfunctioning , Danger. The pattern of psychological disorder are typically deviant( different, extreme, unusual); distressing(unpleasant and upsetting to the person); dysfunctioning(interfering with the person's ability to conduct daily activities in constructive way); and possibly the last stage is danger. DAVIANCE: Thoughts and emotions that are different from those that are considered normal in our place ,time and society.In short, behaviour, thoughts and emotions are deemed abnormal when the violate or against society's idea about proper functioning . Each society has its own rule and regulations, each society establishes thier NORMS( A society stated and unstated rules for proper conduct). Behavior, thoughts and emotions that violate norms of psychological functioning are called abnormal. judgement of abnormality depends on specific circumstances as well as on cultural norms(A people's common history ,values, institutions ,habits , skills, technology and arts). For example ;we do not expects people to cry themselves to sleep each night , wish themselves dead or obey voice that no one else hears. DISTRESS: Even functioning that is considered unusual does not necessarily qualify abnormal. According to many clinical theorists, behaviour , idea , or emotions usually have to cause distress before they can labeled as abnormal. for example ; consider aa group of people who go for swimmimg in lakes throughout the states every weekened from November to February. The colder the weather no any other person go for swimming in such a cold weather. this time is behavior is different and some time unpleasant for others. in some cases, not necessarily, some people who functioning abnormally maintain a positive frame of mind. DYSFUNCTION: Abnormal behaviour tends to be dysfunction; that it is interferes with daily functioning. People with dysfuntioning feel upset, distract, or confusing that they cant not care for themselves properly , and they d'ont properly participate in ordinary social interactions, or productively.Here again one's culture plays a role in the definition of abnormality. Our society holds that it is very important to carry out daily activities in an effective , self-enhancing manner. Dysfunction alone does not necessrily indicates psychological abnormality. DANGER: Perhaps the ultimate in psychological dysfunctioning is behaviour that become dangerous to oneself or other. Individuals whose behaviour is consistently careless, hostile, or confused may be placing themselves or those that are around them at risk WHAT IS TREATMENT? Treatments or therapy is a procedure designed to change abnormal behaviour into more normal. HOW WAS ABNORMALITY VIEWED AND TREAT IN THE PAST? ANCIENT VIEWS AND TREATMENTS: Ancient societies viewed and treated people with mental disturbances is limited. These early societies apparently explained all phenomena as a result from action of magicals and evil spirit. They viewed the human body and mind as a battle ground between external forces of good and evil. Abnormal behaviour was typically interpreted by the victory of evil spirit. This supernatural views of abnormality may have begun as far as back stone age a half million year ago . Some skull from that period recovered in Europe and America show evidence of an operation called "Trephination" in which a stone instrument or trephine, was gused to cut a circular section of a skull.bThis operation was performed as a treatment for sever abnormal behaviour i-e hallucination , in which people saw and heard things not actually present or melancholia ,characterized by extreme sadness and immobility. The purpose of opening the skull was to release the spirit that was causing problems. The other treatment for abnormality in these early societies was often "Exorcism" the idea to coax the spirit to leave or to make the person's body an uncomfortable place in which to live . GREEK AND ROMAN VIEWS AND TREATMENT: I n the era of 500 BC to 500 AD was the Greek and Roman periods. Many Greek and Roman philospher and physicians identified a number of mental disorder. Melancholia, a condition marked by unshakable sadness ; mania, a state of euphoria and frenzied activity. Dementia; a generall intellectual decline ;hysteria , the presence of physical ailments with no apparent physical cause,; delusions, blatantly false believes; and hallucination, the experience of imagined sights and sounds as if they were real. Hippocrates(460-377BC) often called the father of modern medicines , taught that illnesses had natural causes. He believed that some form of brain pathology was a culprit and that it result in the form of diseases in his views from an imbalance of four fluids or humors that makes the body ill. these four fluids are yellow bile, black bile , blood and phlgem. For example an excess of yellow bile cause mania , an excess of black bile cause melancholia.To treat the psychological disorder Hippocarate sought to correct the physical pathology
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